List of articles contained in the IR/INFO 2005 Proceedings:
Thermography and Working Within ISO/QS 9000
Level III Infraspection Institute
Certified Infrared Thermographer # 6357
Owen Sound, Ontario Canada N4K 6V5
To many people the terms ISO 9000 and QS 9000 are merely acronyms and numbers that signify a quality system. Unless you have worked in a facility or corporation that has been registered to these standards, the various sections likely won’t mean much to you. For a professional thermographer, whether it be as a contractor or an in-house expert, there are several sections that can be of value and also present opportunities to expand or assist in justifying IR programs.
This presentation will go through the applicable sections and identify areas that may be of interest to thermographers to explore with your clients or to pursue in-house.
Bill Arnott is a certified 8D problem solving trainer and team facilitator with years of experience working within the quality system known as QS 9000. He was primarily responsible for answering audit questions in the areas of continuous improvement and corrective actions. He was also involved in preparing and revising documentation such as Potential Failure Mode Effects Analysis (PFMEA), Control Plans and operator work instructions during that time.
Performing Mechanical Triage with Ultrasound Technology
Bandes, Alan S.
UE Systems, Inc.
14 Hayes Street
Elmsford, NY 10523
Toll Free: 1-800-223-1325
Condition assessment technologies such as ultrasound, infrared, vibration and oil analysis help keep us aware of equipment performance and equipment health. Maintenance strategies that include both “preventive” and “predictive” approaches will improve asset availability, allowing for planning and efficient use of personnel.
It is good practice to utilize all the technologies available to not only recognize a deviation from normal operation, but to be able to determine the cause of the deviation in order to prevent repeat occurrences. In many plants there are so many systems, subsystems and components to inspect that, if not handled properly, can leave even the most experienced inspector feeling overwhelmed.
The approach to effective equipment condition monitoring should include a strategy whereby inspectors can maximize the use of their time to identify potential problems on all relevant equipment. This will include reviewing the need for inspection, creating a hierarchy of equipment to be tested, scheduling, planning the inspection and selecting the appropriate inspection equipment for the particular test route.
If one of the goals of an inspection program is to quickly identify equipment that has deviated from a normal condition to be noted for either corrective action or for additional analysis, ultrasound inspection can meet this goal.
This paper will examine how to use ultrasound technology as a first line of defense in the war of asset availability. The emphasis will be on performing an effective equipment condition assessment and will include concepts for organizing inspection routes, using ultrasound instruments to listen to sound quality, observe and recognize relevant changes in decibel, data log and record sound waves for analysis.
GIS Diagnostics – Thermal Imaging Systems Used for Poor Contact Detection
Avital, Doron, B.Sc.e.e, M.E.
D. Manager of Central Electrical Lab, Transmission & Substations Division
PO Box 10, Haifa 31000, Israel
The reliability of GIS (Gas Insulation Substation) is very high, but any failure that occurs can cause extensive damage and result in considerably long repair times. The consequential losses to system security and economic costs can be high, especially if the nominal GIS voltage is 420 kV and above. In view of these circumstances, increasing attention is being given to diagnostic techniques for in-service maintenance undertaken to improve the reliability and availability of GIS.
Investigations performed in Japan on a stand-alone SF6 breaker showed that joule heating of the contact produced a temperature difference on the enclosure of up to 7 degrees centigrade that could be detected by an infrared Thermal Imaging System. According to the CIGRE Joint Working Group 33/23.12 Report, 11% of all GIS failures are due to poor current carrying contacts in GIS. The Israel Electric Company (IEC) has undertaken experimental work to examine the possibility of in-service diagnostics of contact problems in GIS using a Thermal Imaging System.
This paper details experiments and findings for utilizing a Thermal Imaging System for detecting poor contact problems in GIS.
De Gustibus Non Disputandum
Beauchemin, Oliver F.
P. O. Box 220
Jeffersonville, VT 05464
A fly by of a number of important web site elements that can make or break a business. There is a consensus of web site artistry not generally recognized by the Do-It-Yourselfer who falls in love with every font, color, dancing doodad that s/he puts on a web page.
We will take a look at some of these poorly inspired web sites and hope that they do NOT remind you of your own site. But, if they do, take heart in knowing that some of the BIG NAMES in the commercial world have suffered outrageous indignities at the hands of their web developers – if not at their very own hands.
Thermographic Documentation of Roof and Building Damage Incurred During the 2004 Florida Hurricane Season
Brady Infrared Inspections
935 Pine Castle Court
Stuart, FL 34996
History was made when four major hurricanes made landfall in Florida during August and September 2004. Winds in excess of 125 miles per hour accompanied by tornados and driving rains inflicted widespread and severe damage to roof and building systems. Infrared inspections were conducted for various types of insulated roofing systems using both long and short wave thermal imaging systems. Several structures were also thermographically inspected to document interior wall and ceiling damage caused by residual moisture and mold. This presentation provides thermal and visual documentation of inspections performed on several commercial and residential sites in the aftermath of these storms.
Successful Use of IR in Pest Management
Certified Pest Operator
Level 1 Thermographer
323 SE First Avenue
Hallandale Beach, FL 33009
The pest management industry has a growing need for infrared pest inspectors. A common standard in the pest industry recommended by the National Pest Control Association is Integrated Pest Management or IPM. The concept of IPM is finding and destroying insect nesting sites, as opposed to a broad application of insecticide to control infestations. Thermography and IPM are a perfect blend. This paper will discuss the nuts and bolts of inspecting for wood destroying organisms using IR and other non-destructive inspection methods.
Using Noncontacting Thermoelectric Techniques to Detect Subsurface Imperfections in Metals
Departamento de Instrumentación y Ensayos No Destructivos, Universidad Michoacana (IIM) Morelia
MICH. MEXICO 58000-888
Nagy, Peter B.
Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati, OH 45221
It was recently discovered that inclusions and other types of imperfections can be nondestructively detected by thermoelectric measurements in a noncontact way by using high-sensitivity magnetometers to sense the thermoelectric currents generated around the affected area when the specimen is subjected to a directional temperature gradient.
The noncontacting thermoelectric inspection technique offers several distinct advantages over conventional methods. The potential applications of this method cover a very wide range from detection of metallic inclusions and segregations, inhomogeneities, and tight cracks to characterization of hardening, fatigue, texture, and residual stresses.
Buried in Paperwork? Time, Tools, and Trends in the Infrared Industry
Logos Computer Solutions
3801 14th Avenue West
Seattle, WA 98119
As more jobs are shipped overseas and companies continue to downsize, many people see infrared inspections as a great way to start a new career in the high tech field of Predictive Maintenance (PdM). The infrared industry is a growing market, as we can see in the increasing number of infrared cameras sold each year. Finding problems with infrared before they blow up or burn up equipment saves companies millions of dollars each year. Once you have an infrared camera and have attended a qualified infrared training course, the future of your business depends on how well you execute your infrared service.
This paper will discuss:
1. Time saving tips and how to implement them
2. Tools used in the infrared industry and how to maximize their benefit
3. Finally, looking at the trends in the infrared industry, how they can affect you and how you can capitalize on them
Why Infrared Programs Fail and How to Prevent It
Colbert Infrared Services, Inc
929 19th Avenue
Seattle, WA 98122
Cert. Level III
For the past 25 years, the industry standard is that 80% of in-house IR programs and IR consulting companies fail within 3 years. A considerable amount of money and time is spent trying to establish an IR program or consulting services only to join a long list in the “IR program obituary pages”. As IR camera prices come down and the entry point of starting an IR program / company gets easier, more and more programs with the best intentions will fail! The numbers prove it. This paper outlines the failure mechanisms that have plagued this industry for over 25 years, brings to light the new problems that we are facing, and explains what can be done to ensure the success of your IR program or consulting company.
Infrared Imaging for Non-destructive Testing of Building Envelope Components
Construction Forensics, Inc.
6328 Millwood Court
Springfield, VA 22152
Defining the scope of repairs on moisture damaged buildings can be very challenging and requires both nondestructive and destructive testing. Non-destructive testing using infrared imaging on building envelope components can provide particularly valuable information on large structures. Infrared thermography coupled with minimal intrusive and destructive testing can provide the building owner and contractor with a common basis of understanding as to the magnitude of repairs required and reduce overall cost in terms of anticipated manpower, unforeseen conditions and change orders.
This paper follows the process from initial observations through the infrared survey, destructive testing and remediation on a hotel facility in New England.
Playing Hide and Seek with Mold: How an Infrared Thermographer and a Mold Inspector Can Partner in Their Search for Mold
Dobbs Enterprises, Inc.
2945 Waumpi Trail
Maitland, FL 32751
Thermographic Services, Inc.
8472 Adams Farm Road
Randleman, NC 27317
Four hurricanes hit the State of Florida in six weeks in 2004: Charley, Frances, Ivan and Jeanne. Charley struck on Friday, August 13th; Frances followed three weeks later; Ivan came ashore on September 16th, and Jeanne on Sept. 26th. Huge amounts of rain coupled with wind gusts over 100 mph caused tremendous damage. According to news reports, more than one in five Florida homes suffered some sort of damage. The number of insurance claims will top 2 million and State officials estimate insured losses at $18 billion.
The water damage from these hurricanes provided very good conditions for water intrusion, and in some cases, mold growth. Infrared thermographers and mold inspectors can be effective partners in quantifying damage and detecting mold, as long as both understand the advantages and limitations of their respective fields. The expertise of both is enhanced with microbial sampling, which scientifically establishes the presence of or absence of mold. Understanding construction, water intrusion and mold behavior all help in selecting the best location for obtaining accurate mold levels.
Transmissivity: Observations of Gas in the Infrared Spectrum
Norco Intermediate School
The purpose of my science project was to study the influence of the chemical composition of gas on its ability to absorb infrared radiation. The main objective was to obscure a heat source with a visibly transmissive gas. I also studied the transmission of infrared light through the gas.
Hypothesizing that the composition of each gas would affect infrared viewing, I used a Spectroradiometer and an long wave infrared camera with digital imagery. Using a blackbody simulator as a constant heat source, testing was performed on Sulfur Hexafluoride, Carbon Dioxide, Tetrafluoroethane, Ammonia, Isopropyl Alcohol, Acetone, Freon 13, Resmethrin, and a can of air.
This paper will present the data supporting my hypothesis that the chemical composition of gas will directly affect transmissivity in the infrared spectrum.
Infrared Applications in Building Diagnostics
FLIR Systems, Inc.
16 Esquire Road
North Billerica, MA 01862
This paper describes and illustrates how infrared (IR) cameras are being used to diagnose the condition of buildings by detecting thermal anomalies. For example, IR thermal imaging can identify moisture within building materials that can support the growth of fungus and mold and compromise structural integrity.
IR inspection is a well accepted practice for identifying anomalous heat patterns in roofing systems, walls, floors, and ventilation systems caused by the presence of water leaks and from condensate in HVAC systems, as well as from air leaks. IR cameras can “detect and image” the heat produced by biological activity in invasive fungus, mold, and insect colonies, greatly facilitating the planning and implementation of remedial action.
IR is also used to monitor the drying process after catastrophes involving moisture, such as plumbing leaks, floods, and fire control and to confirm that a fire is fully extinguished. In addition, IR is a widely accepted practice for inspecting electrical systems, determining the thermal efficiency of building insulation, checking door and window seals, and auditing the performance and condition of heating and cooling systems.
Advanced Techniques in IR Thermography as a Tool for the Pest Management Professional
Grossman, Jon L.
7520 NW 54th Street
Miami, FL 33166
Within the past five years, the Pest Management industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestations and locate other conditions that are within the purview of the industry. This paper will review the applications that can be utilized by the pest management professional and discuss the advanced techniques that may be required in conjunction with thermal imaging to locate insect and other pest infestations, moisture within structures, the verification of data and the special challenges associated with the inspection process.
Infrared Thermography for Stationary Marine Applications
Maintenance Services, Inc.
2837 Sharon Street
Kenner, LA 70062
Infrared thermography is widely used for PPM applications of commercial and industrial facilities throughout the world. Thermography is also used on electrical and mechanical systems for many types of marine applications. Most marine applications pertain to mobile or moving vessels such as cargo ships and dredges. A lesser known application for thermography involves stationary marine systems. Stationary marine systems are structures or vessels that are not supported by land, are not mobile, and are permanently moored. This paper will discuss the techniques for applying thermography to stationary marine structures and systems along with the challenges, logistics, and safety issues particular to this application.
Images and Reports: Your Work Product and the Law
Incollingo Esq., Robert J.
416 Black Horse Pike
Glendora, NJ 08029
Of course we see thermography first as a service business, but a fuller understanding of the field comes upon reconsideration of thermography as a product. Certainly the law has no trouble in application of property principles to the thermographer, whose reports and images are just “widgets” by another name, treated no differently than any other work product. This speech will survey the application of substantive property, tort, and contract law to the thermographer’s work product. It will touch on the Shop Rule and ownership of images and reports, copyright, liability to depicted third parties and foreseeable users, as well as legal trip wires for the thermographer in this age of heightened security concerns.
Calibration and R&R Practices For Reliable Temperature Measurements
Peacock, G. Raymond
Southampton, PA 18966-3836
There are many resources available to help one learn about calibration but few that talk to the practical issues, the practices involved. This talk will discuss traceability and practices used in establishing reasonable calibration uncertainties for temperature-measuring Thermal Imagers and IR Thermometers. The related, very important subject of R&R testing (automotive QA people know the practice as Gage R&R) applies both in the calibration environment and in the field. So it, and one way to conduct a statistically sound R&R test will be presented, too, with examples.
Common Misconceptions Relating to Infrared Inspection Ports
Global Maintenance Technologies
Chelford Court, Robjohns Road
Chelmsford, Essex CM1 3AG
Infrared inspection ports are a real benefit to thermographers. They make our work safer, faster and more accurate, but only when installed and used correctly. If careful consideration is not given to certain issues, inspection ports will give inaccurate results leading to poor diagnosis, thus negating the reason for installing them.
Because a direct-line-of-site is required to record an accurate thermal image, surveys are hampered by cabinet designs that obscure the target components being imaged and thermographers are put at risk by having to open cabinets or doors in an attempt to gain access to the internal components that they wish to image. Even the most comprehensive risk assessments and method statements cannot avoid the obvious risks involved.
The use of infrared inspection ports is becoming more commonplace; in fact, electrical panel manufacturers are now fitting their panels with infrared inspection ports, grills, mesh screens, etc. in an attempt to make them more infrared friendly.
Since an IR inspection port is a permanent fitting in an electrical panel, the thermographer has to give careful consideration to several issues prior to deciding on what type of window best suits their client’s individual requirements. This paper will discuss the above issues and the problems caused by the following:
IR window design
Minimum dielectric clearances from live components
IR window material terminology
Implementation of IR Services in Developing a Sustainable Roof System Program
David Seymore Contractor Inc.
473 Dysart Drive
Dysart, PA 16636
Combining IR scans with yearly walkover inspections and material performance, we have been able to develop a roof program that is cost effective and code compliant. Our involvement in conducting IR scans of over 20 million square feet per year for the past 25 years has allowed us to develop this program for long term building owners. We have six years of records tracking actual labor and material costs involved with this program. This paper will show how we have used IR to maintain a cost effective and code compliant roof system program.
Infrared Imaging as an Aid in Mold Detection
Sharlon, Michael R.
1215 Sturgis Road
Conway, AR 72034
Mold is an organism found inside and outside almost every structure on Earth. The health impact of mold on humans can range from none to fatal when the fungi or its spores are inhaled, ingested or touched. Of the nearly 100 thousand identified species, relatively few adversely impact a healthy adult. Several species affect those with impaired or sensitive respiratory systems.
As concerns over mold have increased, so has the need for accurate detection of mold presence. Although thermography cannot be used to detect the presence of mold, it can be used to detect evidence of latent moisture behind a structure’s surface. This paper will focus on thermographic image analysis, verification of data, and how thermography is being utilized by reclamation and building and environmental organizations in searching for hidden moisture that is often associated with mold presence.
Developments in Thermography Field Data Collection and IR Data Integration with CMMS Systems
Vice President – Business Development
373 Route 46 West
Fairfield, NJ 07004
This paper will review developing trends in asset management systems, data collection, and their impact on PdM thermography inspection practices. Additionally, this paper will describe the integration of field data with asset management and CMMS software suites and the status of open standards being championed by MIMOSA, ISA and OSA.
Infrared Inspection of Underground Fluid Lines
Weigle, Robert K.
Certified Thermographer #6175
Jersey Infrared Consultants
PO Box 39
Burlington NJ 08016
Underground fluid lines are a critical component in the petrochemical refining industry, as well as many other types of process plants. As a non-invasive method of locating thermal patterns, infrared thermography can be used as a highly efficient means of locating both the thermal patterns of underground lines and the thermal patterns which are indicative of potential problems. This paper discusses some of the uses, techniques, limitations and unique problems in performing thermographic testing of underground process (fluid) lines.
Semi Conductor Thermography
4500 South Dobson Road
Chandler, AZ 85248
In today’s high tech world, more companies are building clean room environments to produce product. This provides a great potential profit for thermographers to expand their business. Clean rooms provide many unique challenges and difficulties that most thermographers have never seen and that must be overcome to successfully perform thermography.
This paper will discuss some of the issues and obstacles as well as give an overview of what a clean room is, the classifications and types of clean rooms, micro contamination, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) use in a clean room environment, reflectance, (the thermographer’s nightmare and it’s everywhere), hazardous chemicals used in the process, where not to put the imager if you want it back, target modification (don’t even think about getting that can of spray paint out), the cost associated with semi conductor manufacturing and why infrared thermography is so important to the semi conductor industry.
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