List of articles contained in the IR/INFO 2006 Proceedings:
Applying Infrared Imaging Techniques to Marine Surveying
Allinson, John (Jack) N., II
Level 1 Certified Infrared Thermographer
J.N. Allinson Associates, Inc.
222 University Blvd. North #2
Jacksonville, FL 32211
Marine surveyors are to the marine industry as building and home inspectors are to the commercial and residential real estate industry. A marine surveyor’s opinions are relied upon to document the condition and value of the vessels (boats, ships) they inspect.
A marine surveyor examining a vessel relies heavily upon experience and what can be seen, heard, and felt. Traditionally, visual anomalies seen with the unaided eye often are the sole basis for further testing. Infrared images are an effective tool in extending a marine surveyor’s ability to detect anomalies.
This paper will review common deficiencies found in vessels and show how infrared imaging has become an effective tool in documenting the problems found during inspections.
Corona and Tracking Conditions in Metal-clad Switchgear – Case Studies
Brady Infrared Inspections
935 Pine Castle Court
Stuart, FL 34996
It has been known for some time that ultrasound and infrared technologies complement each other when conducting inspections of switchgear over 1000 volts. At this voltage and higher, the electrical potential field is such that corona and tracking conditions can occur. Yet, very little information has been published describing techniques for performing thermal, ultrasonic and visual inspections to detect these enigmatic problems.
This presentation will attempt to take the mystery out of the occurrence of corona and tracking in metal-clad switchgear and present case studies that have been documented over the past three years. Thermograms and ultrasound audio files will be integrated into this presentation to show their relationship to problems that occur in this type of electrical equipment.
The Business of Infrared Home Inspections
Certified Pest Operator
Level 1 Thermographer
Bestec Home Inspections
323 SE First Avenue
Hallandale Beach, FL 33009
Incorporating infrared inspections with traditional home inspections can be a new source of revenue for the traditional home inspector. This paper will discuss which areas of the marketplace are best suited for infrared home inspection and how to create recurring income from this type of inspection. It will also cover what to look for and be aware of during an infrared survey as well as best practices to reduce your liability when producing your infrared home inspection report.
Infrared “Knowledge Management”
Logos Computer Solutions
3801 14th Avenue West
Seattle, WA 98119
I learned about “Knowledge Management” from a corporate speaker at an insurance company’s team building retreat. It did not really sink in until we did this exercise. There were 5 teams and each had to build a rollercoaster from paper, cardboard, toothpicks, and tape. The winner was the team that kept the marble on the rollercoaster the longest before hitting the floor. One team won the competition and that team was labeled “consultants”. The winning team members were divided up equally and placed on the 4 remaining teams. Now the objective was to build another rollercoaster with the same type of materials. The only difference was that each team would gain the “Knowledge” from the consultants and their previous experience. The object was that every team had to stay up longer than the previous winning time. By openly sharing knowledge, every one of the teams learned from the previous mistakes and successes and every team was able to build a better rollercoaster.
Working in the infrared industry is a continual learning experience. Hopefully, some of the information shared in this paper will help you build a better rollercoaster with fewer mistakes.
This paper will discuss:
Where to gather data to cost justify a new infrared program
Tips on route building
Tools to automate data collection and report generation and how to maximize their benefit
Looking at the trends in the infrared industry, how they can affect you, and how you can capitalize on them
Is Seeing Believing?
Construction Forensics, Inc.
President, AIA, CSI
Virginia / Colorado / Oregon
The infrared survey has been performed and anomalies have been found; however, what do they mean and how can the information be used for remediation?
Infrared imaging, when used in conjunction with selective invasive verification, can be a valuable tool to define the scope of services and anticipated costs for remediation.
This presentation will look at the use of infrared imaging on a wood-framed, modularly-constructed hotel complex located at the Foxwoods Casino in Ledyard, Connecticut.
Experimental Investigation of High Frequency Plasma in the Infrared Spectrum
Norco Intermediate School
The main objective for this project was to observe the infrared spectrum through electrically charged gas resulting in a plasma. I was studying the transmission of infrared light through the plasma and hypothesized that the plasma would not affect infrared viewing. To test my hypothesis, I designed a plasma chamber and performed tests on Argon, Helium, and Neon plasmas.
This paper will present the data supporting my hypothesis that these plasma had no affect on transmissivity in the infrared spectrum.
New IR Cameras for VOC Gas Detection and Industrial Furnace Applications
FLIR Systems, Inc.
16 Esquire Road
North Billerica, MA 01862
Recent technological developments have led to the introduction of two new thermal imagers by FLIR Systems Inc. The GasFindIR permits the detection of volatile organic compounds; the P25/50 can be used for industrial furnace monitoring. Based upon microbolometer technology, both cameras can help to avert unscheduled production shutdowns, ensure optimal equipment operation, and improve safety while increasing productivity.
This presentation will highlight product features and benefits and discuss real-world applications of infrared technology.
Where Has All the “Tribal Knowledge” Gone?
UE Systems, Inc.
14 Hayes Street
Elmsford, NY 10523
As demands on maintenance departments and inspectors have increased, some of the “tribal knowledge” of how specific items in the plant and or production process has been disappearing due to layoffs and early retirement of key people. Ultrasound technology can now provide inspectors with a complete range of inspection, recording, analysis and reporting capabilities. These new advances in ultrasound technology are ideally suited to help adopt methods and technologies to assist a new generation of inspection personnel.
This presentation will describe the basics of the technology, how it has evolved, and the latest advancements in digital instruments and software, which will help assure asset reliability, reduce unplanned downtime and improve system efficiencies.
Trestles Anyone? A Thermographic Nightmare
Grossman, Jon L.
7520 NW 54th Street
Miami, FL 33166
Railroads are close to capacity and there is only so much that can be squeezed through a pipe. The result is insufficient equipment, longer trains, tighter schedules and the stretching of personnel.
Now, imagine that one of these freight trains, hauling chemical tankers and boxcars with a variety of different, possibly hazardous, materials is crossing a river and the trestle supporting the bridge collapses. Hundreds of thousands of pounds of steel, wood, and possibly hazardous chemicals falls into the river, pollutes the land and the river and shuts down a port. Sound farfetched?
This paper will reveal the results of a unique thermographic inspection, the findings, the results and the protocols.
The Fundamentals of Refractory Inspection with Infrared Thermography
Level I, II & III Certified Infrared Thermographer
Thermal Diagnostics Ltd
15 Robertson Street, Les Efforts East,
San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago
Ph / Fax: 868-657-6572
Thermography has been used to inspect the condition of refractory lined vessels and piping for many years now. It is a proven and accepted method for locating damaged and missing refractory material. Most companies, however, do not fully understand all the benefits of performing refractory surveys. They mainly use thermography only before a plant turnaround to determine the extent of refractory damage in order to estimate the materials and labor needed for the repairs. This paper discusses the fundamentals of refractory inspection and how Thermal Diagnostics Limited has been using Infrared Thermography within Trinidad and Tobago as an effective means of predicting areas of future refractory problems in addition to pre-turnaround surveys.
Web Marketing for Small Business
Peacock, G. Raymond
Southampton, PA 18966-3836
As a small company organized around our own technical websites, we have learned a few things about marketing and websites, as well as what not to do. Presently we own and manage three technical websites and a messageboard.
In this paper, we share some of our experiences and provide examples of how a technology-focused website can be established, maintained, and promoted to help your business.
A Thermographer’s Guide to Infrared Inspection Ports
Global Maintenance Technologies
Chelford Court, Robjohns Road
Chelmsford, Essex CM1 3AG
1315 NW 85th, Suite 3
Seattle, WA 98117
Thermal imaging is recognized as one of the best methods to identify problems in low, medium and high voltage electrical equipment. The excellent return on investment is accepted throughout the industry. The majority of thermographic cameras are based on digital camera technology and therefore require a direct line-of-sight to record an accurate image.
Surveys are hampered by cabinet designs that obscure the target components being imaged and thermographers are put at risk by having to open cabinets or doors in an attempt to gain access to the internal components that they wish to image. Even the most comprehensive risk assessments and method statements cannot avoid the obvious risks involved.
The use of infrared inspection ports is becoming more commonplace; in fact, electrical panel manufacturers are now fitting infrared inspection ports, grills, mesh screens, etc. in an attempt to make their panels more infrared friendly.
As an IR inspection port is a permanent fitting in an electrical panel, the thermographer has to give careful consideration to several issues prior to deciding on what type of window best suits his individual requirements. This paper will discuss these issues and the problems caused by the following:
Emissivity & Reflection
IR window design
Minimum dielectric clearances from live components
IR window material terminology
Infrared inspection ports are a real benefit to a thermographer – they make our work safer, faster and more accurate, but only when installed and used correctly. If careful consideration is not given to the issues discussed in this paper, the inspection port will give inaccurate results leading to poor diagnosis, thus negating the reason for fitting them in the first place.
Computation of Directional Radiative Intensity Using the Discrete Ordinates Method for Application in Quantitative Thermography
Salinas, Carlos T.
Department of Mechanical Engineering – UNITAU
Rua Daniel Danelli s/n
Taubate (SP) 12060-440, Brazil
Visualization of 2-D/3-D temperature distribution in furnaces though radiative energy imaging consists of two equally important tasks: calculation of radiative energy image-formation and inversion of the temperature distribution.
This present work studies the application of the discrete ordinate method (DOM) for the first task above. In most angular schemes of the discrete ordinates method reported in the literature, discrete directions are fixed and cannot be arbitrarily adjusted; therefore, it is difficult to employ the conventional discrete ordinates scheme to calculate radiative energy image-formation on the target of a CCD infrared camera in thermographic temperature measurement in participating media at high temperature.
Furnaces and combustion chambers, among others, are examples of that. In this work, the Discrete Ordinates Scheme with Infinitely Small Weight (DOS + ISW) is used in order to remove the obstacle of work with fixed directions.
In this method, one or more new discrete directions are added to an existing discrete ordinate quadrature set, and weights associated with these new directions are set to be infinitely small. One algorithm is developed in this work, numerical investigations were conducted to validate the DOS+ISW technique. Validation in 2-D gray cases is presented by comparison with the result in the literature.
Performing Roof System Evaluations with Infrared Imaging Equipment
David Seymore Contractor Inc.
119 Sutton Road
Ashville, PA 16613
Performing a complete and thorough infrared survey on a roofing system has many different, important components. This paper will cover aspects of roofing system evaluations with IR equipment, discussions on various types of roofing systems across the country, examples of roofs that were diagnosed incorrectly and what thermographers need to be aware of when inspecting a roofing system. Also included will be an update of the roof program we have established with certain participants that shows the yearly tracking of roof performance when a long term commitment to roof inspections has been established.
An Infrared View of Inductive Heating
Sharlon, Michael R.
1215 Sturgis Road
Conway, AR 72034
Inductive heating has been employed as a tool in non-contact heating for well over a century. Thermal imaging can easily be used to observe the effects of intentional and unintentional inductive heating. It is unintentional inductive heating that can cause mysterious damage in systems, accidental electrocutions, and loss of monies.
This paper will assist fellow thermographers in understanding and better identifying the inductively generated hot spot because by better understanding what inductive heating is, how it is generated, and identifying what impact it may have on normal operations and safety, we can better serve our client or parent company.
Understanding Thermal Growth and Dynamic Movement in Precision Alignments
530G Southlake Boulevard
Richmond, VA 23236
Thermal growth of machinery has long been recognized as a phenomenon that needs to be addressed when considering asset care. Ideally, one would determine how much machinery would “grow” and then offset it when it is being aligned to compensate for the anticipated “growth”. When it comes to precision shaft alignment, thermal growth has been given scant attention. If taken seriously, thermal growth would be properly identified as a subset of “dynamic movement”.
In this presentation we will provide information that dispels some of the myths that persist about thermal growth, dynamic movement and precision alignment. Far too many practitioners are still guessing at the offsets to use when aligning. Many are also still overly-reliant on OEM-provided targets that are obviously inaccurate. We will present some fundamentals that can be used to better determine the true dynamic movement of machinery. Drawing from field observations as well as research done by Infraspection Institute, it is hoped that a broader more complete view of machinery alignments will be possible.
The above articles are available for purchase by calling: